The Carbiocial Project investigates viable carbon-optimized land management strategies for maintaining tropical ecosystem services under land use change and changing climate conditions in Southern Amazonia – a hotspot of global change. The project aims at understanding the vital natural processes and socio-economic driving forces in the region and develops strategies to enhance and protect carbon stocks in the recently deforested agroscapes of Central/Northern Mato Grosso and South Pará. That is why Carbiocial analyzes and models soil, water and climate as well as agro-economics, social and political transformations. Based on detailed storylines, the project aims at identifying possible entry-points for a necessary change in local and regional production patterns, considering local livelihoods as well as the present national and global economic, legal and political situation. This book gives an overview of the first results of the multi-disciplinary Carbiocial Project by publishing the main presentations, held on the Carbiocial Status Conference, on October 7-8, 2013, in Cuiabá. In sixteen chapters the authors elucidate the project‘s current state of knowledge, illustrating adapted methods for regional modeling and promising strategies for the Amazon development.