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Author (up) Bordi, I.; De Bonis, R.; Fraedrich, K.; Sutera, A. url  doi
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  Title Interannual variability patterns of the world’s total column water content: Amazon River basin Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Theoretical and Applied Climatology Abbreviated Journal Theor Appl Climatol  
  Volume 122 Issue 3-4 Pages 441-455  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Global trend patterns of yearly mean total column water (TCW) from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 20th century atmosphere model ERA-20CM (1900–2009) and the currently state-of-the-art reanalysis ERA-Interim (1979–2012) show common features of statistically significant upward trends. Of particular interest appears a pronounced regional dipole pattern of interannual climate variability over the South American continent particularly evident in ERA-Interim data. The trend dipole affects two distinct areas: the Andean Amazon basin and the Northeast Brazil. The target regions are characterized by rising and decreasing water content associated with water vapor convergence (divergence) and upward (downward) mass fluxes, respectively. As expected, local water vapor feedback due to local surface temperature change does to not fully explain this TCW trend dipole; other mechanisms may play a role in establishing the observed feature such as moisture transports and monsoon variability in the last decade. The observed trends of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) during the period 1982–2005 show an increasing greenness that coincides with the moistening of the atmospheric column in the Amazon basin. These results are substantiated by two single-station ground-based GPS measurements of TCW vapor (TCWV) from the two target regions.  
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  ISSN 0177-798X ISBN Medium  
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  Call Number SP09 @ moenkemt @ Serial 3  
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Author (up) Gerold, Gerhard; Jungkunst, Hermann F.; Wantzen, Karl M.; Schönenberg, Regine; Amorim, Ricardo S. S.; Couto, Eduardo G.; Madari, B.; Hohnwald, Stefan isbn  openurl
  Title Interdisciplinary Analysis and Modeling of Carbon-Optimized Land Management Strategies for Southern Amazonia Type Conference Volume
  Year 2014 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
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  Abstract The Carbiocial Project investigates viable carbon-optimized land management strategies for maintaining tropical ecosystem services under land use change and changing climate conditions in Southern Amazonia – a hotspot of global change. The project aims at understanding the vital natural processes and socio-economic driving forces in the region and develops strategies to enhance and protect carbon stocks in the recently deforested agroscapes of Central/Northern Mato Grosso and South Pará. That is why Carbiocial analyzes and models soil, water and climate as well as agro-economics, social and political transformations. Based on detailed storylines, the project aims at identifying possible entry-points for a necessary change in local and regional production patterns, considering local livelihoods as well as the present national and global economic, legal and political situation. This book gives an overview of the first results of the multi-disciplinary Carbiocial Project by publishing the main presentations, held on the Carbiocial Status Conference, on October 7-8, 2013, in Cuiabá. In sixteen chapters the authors elucidate the project‘s current state of knowledge, illustrating adapted methods for regional modeling and promising strategies for the Amazon development.  
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  ISSN ISBN 978-3-86395-138-2 Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SP09 @ moenkemt @ Serial 13  
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Author (up) Gollnow, F.; Lakes, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Policy change, land use, and agriculture: The case of soy production and cattle ranching in Brazil, 2001–2012 Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Applied Geography Abbreviated Journal Applied Geography  
  Volume 55 Issue Pages 203-211  
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  Abstract The Brazilian Amazon has experienced one of the world's highest deforestation rates in the last decades. Cattle ranching and soy expansion constitute the major drivers of deforestation, both through direct conversion and indirectly by land use displacement. However, deforestation rates decreased significantly after the implementation of the action plan to prevent and control deforestation in 2004. The aim of this study is to quantify the contribution of cattle and soy production with deforestation before and after the implementation of the action plan in the two states Mato Grosso and Pará along the BR-163. Specifically, we aim to empirically test for land use displacement processes from soy expansion in Mato Grosso to the deforestation frontier between 2001 and 2012. First, we calculated the relationships between deforestation rate and the change in cattle head and planted soy area respectively for the BR-163 region. Second, we estimated different panel regression models to test the association between processes of land use displacement. Our results indicate a close linkage between cattle ranching and deforestation along the BR-163 between 2001 and 2004. Soy expansion in Mato Grosso was significantly associated with deforestation during this period. However, these relations have diminished after the implementation of the action plan to control and prevent deforestation. With the decrease in deforestation rates in 2005, cattle ranching and deforestation were not directly linked, nor was soy expansion in Mato Grosso and deforestation at the forest frontier. Our analysis hence suggests that there was a close coupling of processes and spatial displacement until 2004 and a decoupling has taken place following the political interventions. These findings improve the understanding of land use displacement processes in Brazil and the methods offer potential for exploring similar processes in different regions of the world.  
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  ISSN 0143-6228 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SP09 @ moenkemt @ Serial 1  
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Author (up) Guzha, A.C.; Nobrega, R.L.B.; Kovacs, K.; Rebola-Lichtenberg, J.; Amorim, R.S.S.; Gerold, G. doi  openurl
  Title Characterizing rainfall-runoff signatures from micro-catchments with contrasting land cover characteristics in southern Amazonia Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Hydrological Processes Abbreviated Journal Hydrol. Process.  
  Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages 508-521  
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  Abstract On the basis of interactions between landscape characteristics and precipitation inputs, watersheds respond differently to different climatic inputs. The objective of this study was to quantitatively characterize controls on runoff generation from two first order micro-catchments in the Amazonia region. The study investigated the variation of hydrological signatures at micro-catchment scale and related these to landscape and land cover differences and weather descriptors that control the observed responses. One catchment is a pasture cleared of all natural vegetation in the early 1980s, and the second catchment is a primary tropical forest with minor signs of disturbance. Water levels and meteorological variables were continuously monitored during the study period (December 2012–May 2013). Water level measurements were converted to discharge, evapotranspiration was quantified using Penman–Monteith equation and catchment pedohydrological properties were also determined. During the study period, mean total rainfall was 1200 mm, and direct runoff ratios were 0.29 and 0.12 for the pasture and forest catchments, respectively. Base flow index was relatively high in the forest catchment (0.76) compared with pasture catchment (0.63). Results from this study showed that the pasture catchment had a 35% higher mean stream flow. Analysis of selected individual rainstorm events also showed peak discharges, which were attained much faster in the pasture catchment compared with the forest catchment. At both sites, rainfall-runoff responses were highly dependent on surface and subsurface flow generation. Overland flow was observed in the pasture site during intense rainfall events. The pasture catchment exhibited higher event water contribution than the forest catchment. Findings from this research suggest that shallow lateral pathways play a significant role in controlling runoff generation processes in the forest catchment, whereas infiltration excess runoff generation processes dominate in the pasture catchment. The findings in this study suggest that the conversion of forest to pasture may lead to important changes in runoff generation processes and water storage in these head water catchments. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  
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  Call Number Serial 4  
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Author (up) Jungkunst, H.F.; Krüger, J.P.; Heitkamp, F.; Erasmi, S.; Fiedler, S.; Glatzel, S.; Lal, R. openurl 
  Title Accounting More Precisely for Peat and Other Soil Carbon Resources Type Book Chapter
  Year 2012 Publication Recarbonization of the Biosphere: Ecosystems and the Global Carbon Cycle Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 127-157  
  Keywords Hydromorphic soils Histosols Fluvisols Gleysols Planosols Chernozems Phaeozem Kastanozem Greyzem Podzols Podzols Aerobic decomposition Anaerobic decomposition Turnover rate Wetlands Methane Soil carbon budget Seasonally inundated Mire Marsh Swamp Fen Bog Temperate peatland Tropical peatland Biofuel Oil palm Biodiesel Sphagnum Peatland conversion Ethanol Prairie Methane Water table Permafrost CO2-equivalent Peatland distribution; Land cover; Land use change; Anoxic sites Carbon sequestration  
  Abstract In the context of “recarbonization”, it is important to know where the soil C stocks are located and how much of these are prone to emission to the atmosphere. While it may appear to be a trivial question considering available global estimates and maps, yet there is a strong need to emphasize that erroneous estimates are made in assessing the global soil C stocks. Without doubt, peatlands hold the single most important soil C stock at the global scale, and these soils are mostly located in the northern latitudes between 50°N and 70°N. However, there are additional wetlands or other ecosystems which also hold potentially relevant amounts of soil C stocks. From the soil science perspective, it implies that there are other hydromorphic soils, besides Histosols and potentially other soil types, also containing relevant amounts of soil C stock. Differences in scientific approaches, which include terminology, definitions, depth to which soil C is considered, and bulk density, etc., lead to different estimates of soil C stocks. Recent estimates indicate that peatlands cover only 3% of the global land surface but contain 40% of the soil C stocks to 1-m depth. Consequently, only small differences in the estimate of the land coverage lead to great differences in the soil C stock estimates. Typically peatlands, wetlands and other ecosystems rich in soil C, cover only small parts of the landscapes, and yet are not easily accounted for by any inventory or mapping attempts. With estimates presented in this chapter, hydromorphic soils, aside Histosols, add 10% soil C stock to the estimates of peatland’s Histosols. Additionally, non hydromorphic Podzols add another 10% to the soil C stock. Above all, soils from the steppe biome must also be considered. The soil C stock of Cryosols (frozen soil C not separated from peatlands) contain as much as 1,500 Pg C, which is as much C as the total stock estimated in world soils to 1-m depth. Thus, coordinated and substantial efforts are needed to improve the mapping of ecosystems, particularly of those which are rich in soil C stocks. One option is to improve remote sensing techniques for wetlands. These efforts must be undertaken quickly because soil C stocks are being depleted not only by the positive feedback with the climate system but also directly by land use change. The conversion of peatlands to agricultural and forestry uses is not sustainable because of the depletion C stocks, and especially not for conversion of peatlands for “biofuels” production.  
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  Notes Approved  
  Call Number Serial 11  
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