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Author (up) Bordi, I.; De Bonis, R.; Fraedrich, K.; Sutera, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Interannual variability patterns of the world’s total column water content: Amazon River basin Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Theoretical and Applied Climatology Abbreviated Journal Theor Appl Climatol  
  Volume 122 Issue 3-4 Pages 441-455  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Global trend patterns of yearly mean total column water (TCW) from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 20th century atmosphere model ERA-20CM (1900–2009) and the currently state-of-the-art reanalysis ERA-Interim (1979–2012) show common features of statistically significant upward trends. Of particular interest appears a pronounced regional dipole pattern of interannual climate variability over the South American continent particularly evident in ERA-Interim data. The trend dipole affects two distinct areas: the Andean Amazon basin and the Northeast Brazil. The target regions are characterized by rising and decreasing water content associated with water vapor convergence (divergence) and upward (downward) mass fluxes, respectively. As expected, local water vapor feedback due to local surface temperature change does to not fully explain this TCW trend dipole; other mechanisms may play a role in establishing the observed feature such as moisture transports and monsoon variability in the last decade. The observed trends of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) during the period 1982–2005 show an increasing greenness that coincides with the moistening of the atmospheric column in the Amazon basin. These results are substantiated by two single-station ground-based GPS measurements of TCW vapor (TCWV) from the two target regions.  
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  ISSN 0177-798X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SP09 @ moenkemt @ Serial 3  
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Author (up) Guzha, A.C.; Nobrega, R.L.B.; Kovacs, K.; Rebola-Lichtenberg, J.; Amorim, R.S.S.; Gerold, G. doi  openurl
  Title Characterizing rainfall-runoff signatures from micro-catchments with contrasting land cover characteristics in southern Amazonia Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Hydrological Processes Abbreviated Journal Hydrol. Process.  
  Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages 508-521  
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  Abstract On the basis of interactions between landscape characteristics and precipitation inputs, watersheds respond differently to different climatic inputs. The objective of this study was to quantitatively characterize controls on runoff generation from two first order micro-catchments in the Amazonia region. The study investigated the variation of hydrological signatures at micro-catchment scale and related these to landscape and land cover differences and weather descriptors that control the observed responses. One catchment is a pasture cleared of all natural vegetation in the early 1980s, and the second catchment is a primary tropical forest with minor signs of disturbance. Water levels and meteorological variables were continuously monitored during the study period (December 2012–May 2013). Water level measurements were converted to discharge, evapotranspiration was quantified using Penman–Monteith equation and catchment pedohydrological properties were also determined. During the study period, mean total rainfall was 1200 mm, and direct runoff ratios were 0.29 and 0.12 for the pasture and forest catchments, respectively. Base flow index was relatively high in the forest catchment (0.76) compared with pasture catchment (0.63). Results from this study showed that the pasture catchment had a 35% higher mean stream flow. Analysis of selected individual rainstorm events also showed peak discharges, which were attained much faster in the pasture catchment compared with the forest catchment. At both sites, rainfall-runoff responses were highly dependent on surface and subsurface flow generation. Overland flow was observed in the pasture site during intense rainfall events. The pasture catchment exhibited higher event water contribution than the forest catchment. Findings from this research suggest that shallow lateral pathways play a significant role in controlling runoff generation processes in the forest catchment, whereas infiltration excess runoff generation processes dominate in the pasture catchment. The findings in this study suggest that the conversion of forest to pasture may lead to important changes in runoff generation processes and water storage in these head water catchments. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  
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  Notes Approved  
  Call Number Serial 4  
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Author (up) Müller, H.; Rufin, P.; Griffiths, P.; Barros Siqueira, A.J.; Hostert, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mining dense Landsat time series for separating cropland and pasture in a heterogeneous Brazilian savanna landscape Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume 156 Issue Pages 490-499  
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  Abstract Better spatial information on the global distribution of croplands and pastures is urgently needed. Without reliable cropland–pasture separation it will be impossible to retrieve high-quality information on agricultural expansion or land use intensification, and on related ecosystem service provision. In this context, the savanna biome is critically important, but information on land use and land cover (LULC) is notoriously inaccurate in these areas. This is due to pronounced spatial–temporal dynamics of agricultural land use and spectral similarities between cropland, pasture, and natural savanna vegetation. In this study, we investigated the potential to reliably separate cropland, pasture, natural savanna vegetation, and other relevant land cover classes employing Landsat-derived spectral–temporal variability metrics for a savanna landscape in the Brazilian Cerrado. In order to better understand the surplus value and limitations of spectral–temporal variability metrics for classification purposes, we analyzed four datasets of different temporal depth, using 344 Landsat scenes across four footprints between 2009 and 2012. Our results showed a reliable separation between cropland, pasture, and natural savanna vegetation achieving an adjusted overall accuracy of 93%. A similar accuracy and spatial consistency of LULC classification could not be achieved based on spectral information alone, indicating the high additional value of temporal information for identifying LULC classes in the complex land use systems of savanna landscapes. There is great potential for transferring our approach to other savanna systems which still suffer from inaccurate LULC information.  
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  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SP09 @ moenkemt @ Serial 2  
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Author (up) Pinheiro, T.F.; Escada, M.I.S.; Valeriano, D.M.; Hostert, P.; Gollnow, F.; Müller, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Forest degradation associated with logging frontier expansion in the Amazon: the BR-163 region in southwestern Pará, Brazil Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Earth Interactions Abbreviated Journal Earth Interact.  
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  Abstract Forest degradation is the long-term and gradual reduction of canopy cover due to forest fire and unsustainable logging. A critical consequence of this process is increased atmospheric carbon emissions. Although this issue is gaining attention, forest degradation in the Brazilian Amazon has not yet been properly addressed. The claim here is that this process is not constant throughout Amazonia and varies according to colonization frontiers. Moreover, the accurate characterization of degradation requires lengthy observation periods to track gradual forest changes. The forest degradation process, the associated timeframe, spatial patterns, trajectories and extent, was characterized in the context of the Amazon frontiers of the 1990s using 28 years (1984–2011) of annual Landsat images. Given the large database and the characteristic of logging and burning, we used data mining techniques and cell-approach classification to analyze the spatial patterns and to construct associated trajectories. Multi-temporal analysis indicated that forest degradation in the last two decades has caused as many inter-annual landscape changes as have clear-cuts. In addition, selective logging, as a major aspect of forest degradation, affected a larger amount of forest land than did forest fire. Although a large proportion of logged forest was deforested in the following years, selective logging did not always precede complete deforestation. Instead, our results indicate that logged forests were abandoned for approximately 4 years before clearance. Throughout the forest degradation process, there were no recurrent forest fires, and loggers did not revisit the forest.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1087-3562 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SP09 @ moenkemt @ Serial 14  
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Author (up) Schönenberg, R.; Hartberger, K.; Schumann, C.; Benatti, J.H.; da Cunha Fischer, L. url  openurl
  Title What Comes after Deforestation Control? Learning from Three Attempts of Land-use Planning in Southern Amazonia Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication GAIA – Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society Abbreviated Journal GAIA – Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society  
  Volume 24 Issue 2 Pages 119-127  
  Keywords Brazilian Amazon; environmental governance; land-use regulation; law enforcement; sustainable development  
  Abstract According to recent reports on deforestation control, Brazil’s efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are successful. This is attributed to a combination of command-and-control style of public regulation and civil society pressure. Looking beyond decreasing deforestation rates reveals a different picture for the future of GHG optimized land use in Brazil. Command-andcontrol regulation seems to work as long as prohibitive measures against deforestation are concerned. However, as soon as tailormade policies for complex issues such as land-use planning are required, the outcomes are ambiguous. Comparing the origins, the actors and the perspectives of three different cases of resource governance in Southern Amazonia, we show that the major challenges of regulation attempts are the lack of transparency and the appropriation of state agencies by powerful groups. Due to institutional weakness, the various regulation efforts fail to consider the system links needed for effective implementation. To conclude, we provide suggestions to possibly overcome the problems through innovative forms of governance.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0940-5550 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SP09 @ moenkemt @ Serial 8  
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